The criteria below will assist you in evaluating web pages for use as academic sources.
Be sure and look at the criteria in multiple categories prior to making a decision
regarding the academic quality of a source.
How Did you Find the Website?
How you located the site can give you a start on your evaluation of the site's validity
as an academic resource.
- Was it found via a search conducted through a search engine? Unlike library databases,
the accuracy and/or quality of information located via a search engine will vary greatly
- Was it recommended by a faculty member or another reliable source? Generally, an indicator
- Was it cited in a scholarly or credible source? Generally, an indicator of reliability.
- Was it a link from a reputable site?
Identify the Website's Domain
Think of this as "decoding" the URL, or Internet address. The origination of the site
can provide indications of the site's mission or purpose. The most common domains
- org : An advocacy web site, such as a not-for-profit organization.
- .com : A business or commercial site.
- .net: A site from a network organization or an Internet service provider.
- .edu: A site affiliated with a higher education institution.
- .gov: A federal government site.
- .uk (United Kingdom) : A site originating in another country (as indicated by the
2 letter code).
- ~: The tilde usually indicates a personal page.
Look for information on the author of the site. On the Internet anyone can pose as
- Is the author's name visible? Does the author have an affiliation with an organization
- Does the author list his or her credentials? Are they relevant to the information
- Is there a mailing address or telephone number included, as well as an email address?
example: American Psychological Association
Accuracy and Objectivity
There are no standards or controls on the accuracy of information available via the
Internet. The Internet can be used by anyone as a sounding board for their thoughts
- How accurate is the information presented? Are sources of factual information or statistics
cited? Is there a bibliography included?
- Compare the page to related sources, electronic or print, for assistance in determining
- Does the page exhibit a particular point of view or bias? example: A website for "Why
We Shouldn't Legalize Assisting Suicide"
- Is the site objective? Is there a reason the site is presenting a particular point
of view on a topic?
- Does the page contain advertising? This may impact the content of the information
included. Look carefully to see if there is a relationship between the advertising
and the content, or whether the advertising is simply providing financial support
for the page.
This is both an indicator of the timeliness of the information and whether or not
the page is currently maintained.
- Is the information provided current? When was the page created
- Are dates included for the last update or modification of the page?
- Are the links current and functional?
The ease of use of a site and its ability to help you locate information you are looking
for are examples of the site's functionality.
- Is the site easy to navigate? Are options to return to the home page, tops of pages,
- Is the site searchable?
- Does the site include a site map or index?